Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging (a type of cold working), warm forging, or hot forging (a type of hot working). For the latter two, the metal is heated, usually in a forge.Widely used in mechanisms and machines wherever a component requires high strength, forging can produce a component that is stronger than an equivalent cast or machined part.


Forging can produce a piece that is stronger than an equivalent cast or machined part. As the metal is shaped during the forging process, its internal grain texture deforms to follow the general shape of the part. As a result, the texture variation is continuous throughout the part, giving rise to a piece with improved strength characteristics.[4] Additionally, forgings can achieve a lower total cost than casting or fabrication. Considering all the costs that are incurred in a product’s life cycle from procurement to lead time to rework, and factoring in the costs of scrap, and downtime and other quality considerations, the long-term benefits of forgings can outweigh the short-term cost savings that castings or fabrications might offer.


Some metals may be forged cold, but iron and steel are almost always hot forged. 


Materials and applications
Forging of steel

Depending on the forming temperature steel forging can be divided into:

Hot forging of steel
  • Forging temperatures above the recrystallization temperature between 950–1250 °C
  • Good formability
  • Low forming forces
  • Constant tensile strength of the workpieces
Warm forging of steel
  • Forging temperatures between 750–950 °C
  • Less or no scaling at the workpiece surface
  • Narrower tolerances achievable than in hot forging
  • Limited formability and higher forming forces than for hot forging
  • Lower forming forces than in cold forming
Cold forging of steel
  • Forging temperatures at room conditions, self-heating up to 150 °C due to the forming energy
  • Narrowest tolerances achievable
  • No scaling at workpiece surface
  • Increase of strength and decrease of ductility due to strain hardening
  • Low formability and high forming forces are necessary

For industrial processes steel alloys are primarily forged in hot condition. Brass, bronze, copper, precious metals and their alloys are manufactured by cold forging processes, while each metal requires a different forging temperature.

Forging of aluminium

Aluminium forging is performed at a temperature range between 350–550 °C

High-strength aluminium alloys have the tensile strength of medium strong steel alloys while providing significant weight advantages.
aluminium forged parts are mainly used in aerospace, automotive industry and many other fields of engineering especially in those fields, where highest safety standards against failure by abuse, by shock or vibratory stresses are needed.

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Materials used for Extrusions

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